Current Surgical Concepts and the Rehabilitation for Shoulder, Hip and Knee Arthroplasty (Updated 02/16/16)

Facts and Figures/Arthritis/Supplements

  • Biomet, Inc. Retrieved 4/11/07.

  • Depuy Orthopaedics. Retrieved 2008-2009.

  • The Burden of Musculoskeletal Diseases in the United States: Prevalence, Societal and Economic Cost. Chapter 4: Arthritis and Related Conditions. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.  2008.

  • Millett P, Gobezic R, Baykin R. Shoulder Osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and Management. American Family Physicians. 2008: 78; 5:605-611.

  • Green A, Norris JR. Imaging Techniques for Glenohumeral Arthritis and Glenohumeral Arthroplasty.Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research. 1994; 7-17.

  • Sperling JW et al. Shoulder Arthritis in Young Adults: Arthroscopy to Arthoplasty. Instructional course lectures 2000; 55:67-74.

  • Global Information Inc Report 2007-The Boomer effect on the economy.

  • Leeb, al ., A Meta-analysis of Chondroitin Sulfate in the Treatment of OA. Journal of Rheumatology. 2000; 27:205-211.

  • Divine,Jon G, Zazulak, Bohdanna, Hewett,T. Viscosupplementation for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review. Clinical Orthopaedics &Related Research. 2007; 455:113-122.(2)

  • Kirkley A, Birmingham TB,Litchfield RB et al . A Randomized Trial of Arthroscopic Surgery for Osteoarthritis of the Knee. New Eng J Med. 2008; 359: 1097-1107.

  • Cochrane Systematic Reviews: Corticosteroid Injection, Viscosupplements, Continuous Passive Motion for TKA.  2010/

Patient Education/Outcome

  • Brady. The Patients Role in Rheumatology Care. Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 1998; 10: 146-151.

  • Lorig et al. Health Education for Self Management in Patients . Arthritis and Rheumatism vol 36 (4) 1993.

  • Ackerman IN,Bennell KL. Does Pre-operative Physiotherapy Improves Outcomes from Lower Limb Joint Replacement Surgery? A systematic review. 2004; 50:25-30.

  • McDonald S, Hetrick SE, Green S. Pre-operative Education for Hip or Knee Replacement. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008; 4.

  • Santavista N et al. Teaching of Patients Undergoing THR. Int J Nurs Stud 31 1994 (2) :135.

  • Santaquida P et al. Patient Characteristics Affecting the Prognosis of Total Hip and Knee Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review. Canadian Journal of Surgery. 2008; 51(6);428-436.

  • Herbert R et al. Outcome Measures Outcomes, Not Effects of Intervention. Australi an J of Physio. 2005; 51:3-4.

  • Khan F et al. Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Programs Following Joint Replacement at the Hip and Knee in Chronic Arthropathy-Cochrane Systematic Reviews. 2008:Issue 2.

  • Bozic KJ et al.  The Influence of Procedure Volumes and Standardization of Care on Quality and Efficiency in Total Joint Replacement Surgery.  JBJS. 2010;92-A(11):2643-52

  • Suda AJ et al .Are patient expectations of hip and knee arthroplasty fulfilled ? A prospective study of 130 patients. Orthopaedics. 2010; 33:76.

  • Ruhil VS, Vogel K, McShane M. Associations Between Pre-Operative Physical Therapy and Post Acute Care Utilizations Patterns and Cost in Joint Replacement. JBJS 2014 Oct 01;96 (19)

  • Ibrahim MS, Alazzawi S, Niram I, Hadd FS. An evidenced based review of enhanced recovery in knee replacement surgery. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 2013 Sept 95 (6) 386-389

Diagnostic Imaging

  • Sher JS et al. The effect of Shoulder MRI on Clinical Decision Making. JSES. 1998; 7(3):205-209

Core/Kinetic Link

  • Burkhart SS, Morgan CD, Kibler WB. Throwing Injuries in the Shoulder: The Dead Arm Revisted. Clin Sports Med. 2000; 19: 125-58.

  • Allison GT, Morris SL. Transverse abdominis and core stability-has the pendelum swung? Br J Sports Med. 2008; 42:630-1.

  • Kibler WB. The role of core stability in athletic function. Clinics in Sports Medicine . 2006;36 (3): 189-194.

  • Allison GT, Morris SL, Lay B. Feedforward responses of transversus abdominis are directionally specific and act asymmetrically: implications for core stability theories. JOSPT. 2008; 38: 228-37.

  • Saunders SW, Rath D, Hodges PW.  Postural and Respiratory Activation of the Trunk Muscles Changes with mode and Speed of Location.  2004; 20(3):280-290
  • Morris SL, Lay B, Allison GT. Factor analysis of trunk muscle activation patterns to rapid arm raising. APA National Conference-15th Biennial Conference Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy Australia. Cairns. Queensland, Australia:2007.

Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

  • Radnay et al. Total Shoulder Replacement Compared with Humeral Head Replacement for the Treatment of Primary Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis. A systematic Review. JSES. 2007; 16 (4): 396-402.

  • Frankie M et al. The Reverse Shoulder Prosthesis for Glenohumeral Arthritis Associated with Severe Rotator Cuff Deficiency. A Minimum Two-year Follow-up Study of Sixty Patients. JBJS.2005; Aug; 87A(8): 1697-705.

  • Boudreau S et al. Rehabilitation Following Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty. JOSPT. 2007; Dec; vol 37(12):734-742.

  • Gerber et al. Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty. JAAOS.2009; May;vol 15(5):284-295.

  • Ellenbecker TS, Bailie DS, Lamprecht D. Humeral Resurfacing Hemiarthroplasty with Meniscal Allograft in a Young Patient with Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis. JOSPT. 2008; 38(5):277-286.

  • Wilcox RB, Arslanian LE, Millet PJ. Rehabilitation Following Total Shoulder Arthroplasty. JOSPT. 2005; 35(12):821-836.

  • Godges J et al . The immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on glenohumeral external rotation and overhead reach. JOSPT. 2003;33 (12):713-714.

  • Elhassan B, Ozbaydar M, Diller D, Higgins LD, Warner JJ. Soft-tissue resurfacing of the glenoid in the treatment of glenohumeral arthritis in active patients less than fifty years old. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009 Feb;91(2):419-24.

Total Hip Arthroplasty

  • Total Hip Replacement Protocol. Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Boston, Massachusetts.
    Dumbleton JH, Manley MT. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement: What Does the Literature Say?. J Arthroplasty. 2005; Sep; 20(6):822-3.

  • Dimonaco M et al Rehabilitation after Total Hip Arthroplasty-A Systematic Review of Controlled Trials on Physical Exercise Programs. Eur J Phys Med Rehabil. 2009.

  • Eggen J et al. Hip Abductor Fatigue Affects Knee Motion During the Landing Phase of a Drop Jump. J Athl Train. 2003; 38:S-22 Suppl.

  • Gremeaux V et al. Low Frequency Electrical Muscle Stimulation Combined with Physical Therapy after THA: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008; 89 (12):2265-2273

  • Galea MP et al. A Targeted Home and Center Based Exercise Program for People after THA: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008; 89(8):1442-1447.

  • Press R. Physicians Debate the importance of learning curve for hip resurfacing. Orthopedics Today.2009;29:8

  • Bhave A, Mont M, Tennis S, Nickey M, Starr R, Etienne G. Functional problems and treatment solutions after total hip and knee joint arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87 Suppl 2:9-21.
  • Minns Lowe CJ et al.  Effectiveness of Physiotherapy Exercises Following Hip Arthroplasty for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.  BMC Musculoskeltet Disord. 2009. 10:98

  • Minns Lowe CJ, Barker KL, Dewey M, Sackley CM. Effectiveness of Physiotherapy after Hip Arthroplasty following Osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. BMJ;2009;10:98

  • Ewen AM et a.  Post-operative Gait Analysis in Total Hip Replacement Patients: A Review of Current Literature and Meta-Analysis.  Gait and Posture.  2012; 36:1-6

  • Vissers MM, Bussmann JB,Verhaar JA, et al. Recovery of physical functioning after totatl hip arthroplasty: systematic review and metaanalysis of the literature. Phys Ther.2011;91:615-629

  • Bandholm T, Kehlet H. Physiotherapy exercises after fast track THA and TKA; Time for a reconsideration? Arch Phys and Rehabil.2012;93:1292-4.

  • Ninomiya JT, Dean JC, Incavo SJ. What’s New in Hip Replacement . JBJS.2015;97(18) :1543-1550

  • Jacobs C. Comparable Function Seen at 6 Weeks with Direct Anterior Approach and Posterior Approach for Total Hip Arthroplasty. Presented at American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons Annual Meeting . Nov 7-9 ;2014 . Dallas Texas

  • Paxton E, Cafri L, Havelin S, Stea F, Pallisio S, Graves and D Hoeffel. Bearing Surfaces. JBJS.2015;97(18): 1550

  • Eitzen I, Fernandes L, Nordsletten L, Risberg MA. Sagittal plane gait characteristics in hip osteoarthritis patients with mild to moderate symptoms compared to healthy controls: a cross-sectional study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012; 13: 258

  • Bergmann G, Deuretzbacher G, Heller M, et al. Hip contact forces and gait patterns from routine activities. J Biomech. 2001; 34: 859– 871.

Dislocations/Weight Bearing/Precautions

  • Peak EL et al. The Role of Patient Restrictions in Reducing the Prevalence of Early Dislocation Following Total Hip Arthroplasty. JBJS. 2005; Feb;87(2): 247-253.

  • Borne M. The Dislocating Hip: What to do, what to do? Journal of Arthroplasty. 2004; 19(4 Suppl 1 ) , 111-114.

  • Von Knoch B et al. Late Dislocations after THA . JBJS Am. 2002; 84-A (11) :1949-1953.

  • Talbot et al. Early Dislocation after THA: Are Post-op Restrictions Necessary ? J Arthroplasty. 2002; 17 (8), 32-40.

  • Woolsen A. The Effects of Partial or Full Weight Bearing Ambulation after Cementless THA. J Arthroplasty. 2002; 17 (2), 820-825.

  • Chan et al . Full Weight Bearing after Non-cemented THR is Compatible with Satisfactory Results. Int Orthop. 2003; 27 (2) , 94-97.

  • Boden et al. No Adverse Effects of Early Weight Bearing after Uncemented THA: A Randomized Study of 20 Patients. Acta Orthop Scand. 2004; 75 (1),21-29.

  • Soong M et al. Dislocation after Total Hip Arthroplasty. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2004; vol 12 #5; Sept/Oct:314-321.

  • Gremeaux V et al. Low Frequency Electrical Muscle Stimulation Combined with Physical Therapy after THA : A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008; 89 (12):2265-2273.

  • Galea MP et al. A Targeted Home –and Center-Based Exercise Program for People after THA: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008; 89(8): 1442-1447.

  • Hol Am, Vangrinvens, Lucas C, Van Susante JL, Van Loon CJ.  Partial use Unrestricted Weight Bearing After an Uncemented Femoral Stem in Total Hip Arthroplasty: Recommendation of a Concise Rehabilitation Protocal from a Systematic Review.  Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2010; April 130(4):547-55

  • Ververeli PA, Lebby EB, Tyler C, Fouad C. Evaluation of Reducing Postoperative Hip Precaution in Total Hip Replacement: A Randomized Prospection Study. Orthopedics. 2009; 32(12):889

  • Howie DW et al.  Large Femoral Heads Decreases the Incidence of Dislocation after Total Hip Arthroplasty.  JBJS. 2012; 94-A(12)(6):1095-102

Gluteus Medius

  • Presswood L et al . Gluteus Medius: Applied Anatomy, Dysfunction, Assessment and Progressive Strengthening. Strength and Conditioning Journal.2008, 30(5) : 41-53.

  • Jacobs CA et al. Electromyographic Analysis of Hip Abductor Exercises Performed by a Sample of Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients. J Arthroplasty. 2008-published online Sept 1.

  • Tyler et al. The Role of Hip Function in Patellofemoral Pain. AJSM. 2006; 34(4) 630-636

  • Distefano LJ et al. Gluteal Muscle Activation During Common Therapeutic Exercises. JOSPT. 2009; 39 (7): 532-540.

  • Grimaldi A et al. The Association Between Degenerative Hip Pathology and Size of the Gluteus Medius,Minimus and Piriformis. Manual Therapy. 2009; vol 14 #6 (12), 605-610.


  • Saavedra-Hernandez, Castro-Sannchez A, Arroyo-Morales M, Cleland J, Lara-Palomo I, Fernandez-de las Penas C. Short term effects of kinesio taping versus cervical thrust manipulation in patients with mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial. J Ortho Sports- Phy Ther; (8):724-730.

  • Gonzalez-Iglesias J, Gutierrez-Vega M, Fernandez-de-las-Penas C Huijbregts P, Cleland J Short term effects of cervical kinesiology taping on pain and cervical ROM in patients with acute whiplash injury: a randomized clinical trial. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther 2009;39(7):515-521.

  • Karatos N, Bicici B, Baltoci G, Caner H. The effect of kinesiology taping application on functional performance in surgeons who have musculoskeletal pain after performing surgery. Turk Neurosurg. 2012;22(1):83-9.

  • Yoshida A, Kahanov L. The effect of kinesio taping on lower trunk range of motion. Res Sports Med. 2007 Apr-Jun;15(2): 103-12.

  • Thelen M, Stoneman P, Dauber J. The clinical efficacy of kinesiotape for shoulder pain: a randomized, doubled-blinded, clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38(7):389-395.

  • Simsek HH, Balki S, Keklik SS, Ozturk , Elden H. Does kinesio taping in addition to exercise therapy improve the outcome in subacromial impingement syndrome? A randomize, double blind, controlled clinical trial. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2013;47(2):104-110.

Total Knee Arthroplasty

  • AAHKS Position Statement on Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery 2007-2008.
    Berend ME. Computer Assisted TKA: Greater Precision, Doubtful Clinical Efficacy: Affirms. Orthopedics. 2009;32:678.

  • Mullaji A. Computer Assisted TKA: Greater Precision, Doubtful Clinical Efficacy: Opposes. Orthopedics. 2009;32:679.

  • Colwell CW et al. Knee Forces During Recreational Activities After Total Knee Arthroplasty. AAOS Annual Meeting Podium Presentation 2008.

  • Santaquida P et al. Patient Characteristics Affecting the Prognosis of Total Hip and Knee Joint Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review. Canadian Journal of Surgery. 2008; 51(6);428-436.

  • Harmer AR et al. Land Based vs. Water Based Rehabilitation Following TKA: A Randomized Trial.Arthritis and Rheumatism. Feb 15, 2009; 61 (2): 184-191.

  • Miller DW. Minimal incision surgery as a risk factor for early failure of Total Knee Replacement. Paper # 272. Presented at the AAOS 76th annual meeting, Feb 25-28,2009. Las Vegas, NV.

  • Incavo SJ et al. Kneeling after Total Knee Arthroplasty. J of Arthroplasty. 2004;19 (7):906-910.
  • Chiarello CM, Gunderson MS, and O'Halloran J.  The Effects of Continuous Passive Motion Duration and Increment on Range of Motion in Total Knee Arthroplasty. JOSPT. 1997; 25;119-127.

  • Kim YH, Kim JS, Choi Y, Kwon OR.  Computer-assisted surgical navigation does not improve the alignment and orientation of the components in total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009 Jan;91(1):14-9.
  • Weng YJ, Hsu RW, Hsu WH.  Comparison of computer-assisted navigation and conventional instrumentation for bilateral total knee arthroplasty. JOSPT. J Arthroplasty. 2009 Aug;24(5):668-73.

  • Seon JK, Song EK, Park SJ, Yoon TR, Lee KB, Jung ST.  Comparison of minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty with or without a navigation system. J Arthroplasty. 2009 Apr;24(3):351-7.
  • Karpman RR, Smith HL.  Comparison of the early results of minimally invasive vs standard approaches to total knee arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized study. J Arthroplasty. 2009 Aug;24(5):681-8.

  • Alejandro González Della Valle, MD, Alejandro Leali, MD, and Steven Haas, MD.  Etiology and Surgical Interventions for Stiff Total Knee Replacements. HSS J. 2007 September; 3(2): 182–189.
  • Swank AM, Kachelman JB, Bibeau W, Quesada PM, Nyland J, Malkani A, Topp RV.  Prehabilitation before total knee arthroplasty increases strength and function in older adults with severe osteoarthritis. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Feb;25(2):318-25.

  • Avramidis K, Karachalios T, Popotonasios K, Sacorafas D, Papathanasiades AA, Malizos KN. Does electric stimulation of the vastus medialis muscle influence rehabilitation after total knee replacement?. Orthopedics. 2011 Mar 11;34(3):175.
  • Mandeville D, Osternig LR, Chou LS. The effect of total knee replacement surgery on gait stability. Gait Posture. 2008 Jan;27(1):103-9.

  • Mandeville D, Osternig LR, Chou LS. The effect of total knee replacement on dynamic support of the body during walking and stair ascent. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2007 Aug;22(7):787-94.

  • Catani F, Benedetti MG, De Felice R, Buzzi R, Giannini S, Aglietti P. Mobile and fixed bearing total knee prosthesis functional comparison during stair climbing. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2003 Jun;18(5):410-8.

  • Nelson CL, Kim J, Lotke PA. Stiffness after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Sep;87 Suppl 1(Pt 2):264-70.
  • Bandholm T, Kehlet H.  Physiotherapy Exercise After Fast Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Time for Reconsideration?  Arch Phys Med Rehab.  2012;93(7):1292-1294.

  • Liebs TR et al.  Multicenter Randomized Conrolled Trial Comparing Early vs. Late Aquatic therapy after Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty.  Arch Phys Med Rehab.  2012;93(2):192-199.

  • Butler RJ et al.  The Effects of a Subject Specific Amount of Lateral Wedge on Knee Mechanics in Patients with Medial Knee Osteoarthritis.  J Orthop Res.  25:1721-7

  • Minns Lowe CJ, Barker KL, Dewey M, Sackley CM. Effectiveness of Physiotherapy after Knee Arthroplasty following Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Reviw and meta analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. BMJ; 2007 335.812

  • Alnahdi AH, Zoni JA, Mackler-Snyder L.  Gait After Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Frontal Plane Analysis.  2010;(5):647-652

  • Moffet H et al. In-Home Telerehabilitation Compared with Face-to-Face Rehabilitation After Total Knee Arthroplasty. JBJS.2015; 97(14) :1129-1141

  • Post Z, Deirmengian C, Lonner JH. What’s New in Adult Reconstructive Knee Surgery.2015;97(2):169-174

  • Chan A,Pang M. Measuring Balance Function in Patients With Total Knee Arthroplasty. Physical Therapy Journal.2015;95(10): 1397-1407

  • Gonzales R, Danoff JV. Church Pew Exercise Integrated With Conventional Physical Therapy Following Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) : Case Report. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice . 2015 ;vol 13. No. 4 ----O’Halloran’s published citation on the Church Pew Exercise

  • Matsumoto H, Okuno M, Nakamura T, et al. Fall incidence and risk factors in patients after total knee arthroplasty. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2012;132:555–563.

  • Levinger P, Menz HB, Morrow AD, et al. Lower limb proprioception deficits persist following knee replacement surgery despite improvements in knee extension strength. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012;20:1097–1103.


  • Meier et al Total Knee Arthroplasty:Muscle Impairments, Functional Limitations and Recommended Rehabilitation Approaches. JOSPT. 2008; 38 (5) 246-256.

  • Mizner et al. Quadriceps Strength and the Time Course of Functional Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty. JOSPT. 2005; 35 (7) 424-436.

  • Stevens JE et al. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Quadriceps Muscle Strengthening after Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Series. 2004; 34 21-29.

  • Greene KA, Schurman JS. Quadriceps Muscle Function in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty. J of Arthoplasty. 2008.

  • Hart JM, Pietrosimone B, Hertel, J, Ingersoll CD. Quadriceps Activation Following Knee Injuries: A Systemic Review.J of Ath Train 2010; 45 (1):87-97

Return to Activity

  • Nicholls M, Selby J, Hartford J. Athletic Activity After Total Joint Replacement. Orthopedics. Nov 2002; 25,11:1283-1287.

  • Kuster, M. Exercise Recommendations after Total Joint Replacement: A Review of Current Literature and Proposal of Scientifically Based Guidelines. Sports Med. 2002; 32(7):433-445

  • Klein G, Levine B, Hozack W, et al. Return to Athletic Activity After Total Hip Arthroplasty: Consensus Guidelines Based on a Survey of the Hip Society and American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons. J of Arthroplasty. 2007; 22(2):171-175

  • Huch K, Muller K, Sturmer T, Brenner H, Puhl W, Gunther K. Sports activities 5 years After Total Knee or Hip Arthroplasty: the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005; 64:1715-1720.

  • Fritz, S., & Lusardi, M. Walking Speed: The Sixth Vital sign.  Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy2009; 32(2),2-5

  • Steffen TM, Hacker TA, Mollinger L. Age and gender-related test performance in community-dwelling elderly people: Six-Minute Walk Test, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up & Go Test, and gait speeds. Phys Ther. 2002 Feb;82(2):128-37.

  • Rejeski WJ, Ettinger WH Jr, Schumaker S, James P, Burns R, Elam JT. Assessing performance-related disability in patients with knee osteoarthritis.  Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 1995 Sep;3(3):157-67.

Effective Examination of the Shoulder Complex: New Advances (Updated 02/16/16)


  • McKenzie , R May S. The Human Extremities: Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy. Wellington, New Zealand 2000.

  • Sahrmann, SA: Muscles Imbalances in the Orthopaedic and Neurological Patient. P 836 In Proceedings 10th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, Sydney, Australia,1987.

  • Sahrmann S. Diagnosis and Treatment of Movement Impairment Syndromes. St Louis, MO 2002.

  • Ellman H, Gartsman GM. Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery and Related Procedures. Philadelphia, PA. Leadh Febiger. 1993.

  • Mitchell K. et. al. Shoulder Motions During the Golf Swing in Made Amateur Golfers. JOSPT. 2003; 34:4. 196-203.

  • Dillman CJ, Fleisig GS, Andrews JR. Biomechanics Of Pitching With Emphasis Upon Shoulder Kinematics.J of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 1993; 18(2):402-408.

  • Donatelli, R. et al. Assessment Of Shoulder Strength In Professional Baseball Pitchers. J of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 2000; 30(9), 544-551.

  • Schenck RC, Rockwood CA, & Wirth MA. (1997). Throwing Injuries: Pinpointing The Problem, Offering Relief: In The Younger Athlete With Shoulder Pain, First Consider Instability. J of Musculoskeletal Medicine. 1997; 14(2):28-32, 34, 39-41.

  • Tomberlain, J. Physical Diagnostic Test of the Shoulder: An Evidence Based Perspective. APTA Orthopedic Section Home Study Course. 11/12/2001.

  • Magee, D. Orthopedic Physical Assessment. Philadelphia W.B. Saunders Co. 1987; pg. 77.

  • Hoppenfeld, S. Physical Examination of the Spine and Extremities. Conn. Appleton-Century-Crofts. 1976; pg. 23.

  • Mikesky, A. et. Al. Eccentric and Concentric Strength of the Shoulder and Arm Musculature in Collegiate Baseball Pitchers. Am J. Sports Med. 1995; 23(5): 638-642.

  • Priest JD, Nagel, DA. Tennis Shoulder. Am J. Sports Med. 1976; 4:28-42.

  • Tomerlain, J. Evaluations Treatment and Prevention of Shoulder Disorders: An Intergrated Approach. Course Notes 1996. Baltimore MD


  • Sharkey MA, Marder RA. The Rotator Cuff Opposes Superior Translation of the Humeral Head. Am J Sports Med.1995; 23:270-275.

  • Apreleva M, Parsons IM, Warner JT, Fu FH, Woo SL. Experimental Investigation of Reaction Forces at the Glenohumeral Joint During Active Abduction. J Shld Elb Surg. 2000; 9:409-417.

  • Colachis, S.C. Jr. SB.  Effect of Suprascapular and Axillary Nerve Blocks on Muscle Force in Upper Extremity. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1971; 52: 22-29.

  • Pagnani MJ et al. Role of the Long head of the Biceps Brachii in Glenohumeral Stability: A Biomachanical Study in Cadavera. JSES. 1996; Vol 5 issue 4:255-262.

Kinetic Link/Core

  • Allison GT, Morris SL. Transversus Abdominis and Core Stability-Has the Pendulum Swung ? Br J Sports Med 2008; 42:630-1.

  • Morris SL, Lay B, Allison GT. Factors Analysis of Trunk Muscle Activation Patterns to Rapid Arm Raising.APA National Conference-15th Biennial Conference Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy Australia. Cairins, Queensland, Australia: 2007.

  • Kibler WB. The Role Of Core Stability In Athletic Function. Clinics In Sports Medicine. 2006; 36 (3):189-198.2006.

  • Allison GT, Morris SL,Lay B. Feedforward Responses Of Transversus Abdominis Are Directionally Specific And Act Asymmetrically: Implications For Core Stability Theories. JOSPT 2008; 38:228-37.

  • Kebaetse M, McClure P, Pratt N. Thoracic Position Effects on Shoulder Range of Motion, Strength, and Three-Dimensional Scapular Kinematics. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1999; Vol 80: 945-950.

  • Beimborn, DS. Mossissey, MC.: A Reviews of Literature Related to Trunk Muscle Performance. Spine1988; 13:655.

  • Kibler,W.B. Biomechanical Analysis Of The Shoulder During Tennis Activities. Clinical Sports Med. 1995; 14:79-85.

  • Kibler,W.B. Shoulder Rehabilitation: Principles And Practice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.1998; Vol.30,NO. 9 Suppl., pp. S40-S50.

  • McMullen, J . Uhl T. A Kinetic Chain Approach for Shoulder Rehabilitation. Journal of Athletic Training. 2000; 35(3): 329-337.

  • Burkhart SS, Morgan CD, & Kibler WB. (2000). Shoulder Injuries In Overhead Athletes: The Dead Arm Revisited. Clinics in Sports Medicine; 19(1), 125-128.

  • Kibler W.B., Press J., Sciasscia A. The Role Of Core Stability In Athletic Function. Sports Medicine.2006; 36(3): 189-198.

  • Wilson J.D., Dougherty C.P., Ireland M.L., Ireland M.D. Core Stability And Its Relationship To Lower Extremity Function And Injury. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2005; 13:316-325.

  • Panjabi M.M. The Stabilizing System Of The Spine. Part II. Neutral Zone And Stability Hypothesis.Journal of Spinal Disorders. 1992; 230; 20-4.

  • Bergmark A. Stability Of Lumbar Spine. A Study In Mechanical Engineering. Acta Orthopaedic of Scandinavia. 1989; 230; 20-4.

  • Cordo P.J., Nashner L.M. Properties Of Postural Adjustments With Rapid Arm Movements. Journal of Neurophysiology. 1982; 47(2): 287-308.

  • Kibler, W.B. Biomechanical Analysis Of The Shoulder During Tennis Activities. Clinical Sports Medicine. 1995; 14:79-85.

  • Clark, M. Core Training. 56th Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposium. NATA. Indianapolis, IN. June 12-16 2005.

  • Zattara M, Bouisset S. Posturo-Kinetic Organisation During The Early Phase Of Voluntary Upper Limb Movement , 1:Normal Subjects. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988; 55:956-965.

  • Smith J, Dahm DL, Kotajarvi BR, Boom AJ, Laskowski ER, Jacofsky DJ, Kaufman KR. Electromyographic Activity in the Immobilized Shoulder Girdle Musculature During Ipsilateral Kinetic Chain Exercises. Arch Phys Med & Rehabil. 2007; 88(11): 1377-83.

  • Sauers EL, et al. Hip and glenohumeral rotational range of motion in healthy professional pitchers and position players. Am J Sports Med. 2014 Feb;42(2):430-6

  • Laudner K. The relationship between clinically measure hip rotational motion and shoulder biomechanics during pitching motion. J Sci Med Sport. 2014 Jul 30

  • Beckett M, et al. Clinical assessment of scapula and hip joint function in preadolescent and adolescent baseball players. Am J Sports Med. 2014 Oct;42(10):2502-9

  • Plummer HA, Oliver GD. The relationship between gluteal muscle activation and throwing kinematic in baseball and softball catchers. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Jan;28(1):87-96

  • Klingerstein GG et al. Hip Injuries in the overhead athlete. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012 Jun;470(6):1579-85

  • Scher S, et al. Association among hip and shoulder range of motion and shoulder injury in professional baseball players. J Athl Train. 2010 Mar-Apr;45(2):191-7

  • Laudner KG, et al. Functional hip characteristics of baseball pitchers and positions players. Am J Sports Med. 2010 Feb;38(2):383-7

  • Ellenbecker et al. Descriptive profile of hip rotation and motion in elite tennis players and professional baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 2007 Aug;35(8):1371-6.

  • Ovlier GD, et al. Gluteal muscle group activation and its relationship with pelvis and torso kinematics in high-school baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 24(11): 3015–3022

Manual Therapy

  • Ho C-YC,Sole G, Munn J. The Effectiveness Of Manual Therapy In The Management Of Musculoskeletal Disorders Of The Shoulder: A Systematic Review. Manual Therapy. 2009; Oct 14(5),463-474.

  • Trampas A,Kitsio A. Exercise And Manual Therapy For The Treatment Of Impingement Syndrome Of The Shoulder :A Systematic Review. Physical Therapy Reviews. 2006; Jun 11(2): 125-142.

  • Senbursa et al. Comparison Of Conservative Treatment With And Without Manual Physical Therapy For Patients With Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: A Prospective , Randomized Clinical Trial. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007; 15:915-921.

  • Godges et al. The Immediate Effects Of Soft Tissue Mobilization WITH Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation ON Glenohumeral External Rotation AND Overhead Reach. JOSPT. 2003; 33 (12): 713-718.

  • Johnson, A. Godges, J. Zimmerman, G. Ounanian, L. The Effect Of Anterior Verses Posterior Glide Joint Mobilization On External Rotation Range Of Motion In Patients With Shoulder Adhesive Capsulitis. J. Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007; 37: 88-99.

  • Uhthoff, H.K.; Sano, H. Pathology Of Failure Of The Rotator Cuff Tendon. Orthopedic Clinicals Of North America. 1997; 28:(1)31-41.

  • Harryman D, et al, Translation Of The Humeral Head On The Glenoid With Passive Glenohumeral Motion.J Bone and Jt Surg (Am). 1990; 72:1334-1343.

  • Howell et al, Normal And Abnormal Mechanics Of The Gleno-Humeral Joint In The Horizontal Plane. J Bone and Jt Surg (Am). 1988; 70:227-232.

  • Akeson WH, Amiel D, Abel MF, Garfin, SR, Woo S L-Y. Effects of Immobilization on Joints. Clin Ortho Relat Research. 1987; 219:28-37.

  • Castellarin G, Ricci M, Vedovi E, et al. Manipulation and arthroscopy under general anesthesia rehabilitative treatment for frozen shoulders. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85(8):1236-1240.

  • Farrell CM, Sperling JW, Cofield RH. Manipulation for frozen shoulder: long term results. J Shld Elbow Surg 2005 ; 14(5):480-484.

  • Griggs et al. Idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. A prospective functional outcome study of non-operative treatment. JBJS 2000 82-A (10): 1398-1407

  • Vermeulen HM, Rozing PM, Obermann WR, et al. Comparison of high load vs. low load grade mobilization techniques in the management of adhesive capsulitis-randomized controlled trials 2006;86(3): 355-368

  • Cleland J ,Durall C. Physical Therapy for Adhesive Capsulitis-systematic review. Physiotherapy 2002; 88(8):450-457

  • Gorgos KS et al . Inter clinician and Intra clinician reliability of force application during joint mobilization : A systematic review . Manual Therapy. 2014 ; 19 : 92- 96

  • Deyle GD, Henderson NE, Matekel RL, Ryder MG, Garber MB, Allison SC. Effectiveness of manual physical therapy and exercise in osteoarthritis of the knee. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2000; 132: 173– 181

  • Deyle GD, Allison SC, Matekel RL, et al. Physical therapy treatment effectiveness for osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized comparison of supervised clinical exercise and manual therapy procedures versus a home exercise program. Phys Ther. 2005; 85: 1301– 1317

  • Cleland JA, Mintken PE, McDevitt A, et al. Manual physical therapy and exercise versus supervised home exercise in the management of patients with inversion ankle sprain: a multicenter randomized clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013; 43: 443– 455

  • Hoeksma HL, Dekker J, Ronday HK, et al. Comparison of manual therapy and exercise therapy in osteoarthritis of the hip: a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2004; 51: 722– 729

  • Green A et al . Measurements properties of patient supported outcome measurements ( PROMS) on patellafemoral syndrome : A systematic review. Manual Therapy. 2014; 19: 517-526

  • Wassinger GA et al . Acute efficacy of rearfoot manipulation on dynamic standing balance in healthy individuals. Manual Therapy . 2014 ; 19 : 242-245

  • Vooght LDe Vires et al . Analgesic effects of manual therapy in patients with musculoskeletal pain : A systematic review. Manual Therapy. 2015; 2 : 252-256

  • Gribes E et al. Balancing “hands on “ with “ hands off” Physical Therapy intervention for the treatment of central centralization pain in osteoarthritis . Manual Therapy. 2015 ; 2: 349-352

Manual Therapy

  • Bialosky J, Bishop M, Price D, Robinson M, George S. The Mechanism of Manual Therapy in the Treatment of Musculoskeletal Pain.. Manual Therapy. 2009; Oct 14(5): 531-538.

Manual Upper and Lower Quadrant

  • Isabel de-la-Llave-Rincon A, Puentedura, EJ, Fernandez-de-Las-Penas C. Clinical Presentation and Manual Therapy for Upper Quadrant Musculoskeletal Conditions. J Manip Ther. 2011; Nov;19(4): 201-211.

  • Brantingham JW, Bonnefin D, Perle SM, Cassa TK, Globe G, Pribicevic M, Hicks M, Korporaal C. Manipulative Therapy for Lower Extremity Conditions: Update of a Literature Review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2012; Feb;35(2): 217-266.


  • Farrokhi S et al . Altered Gait Characteristics in Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis and Self -Reported Knee Instability. JOSPT.2015;45:351-359

  • Eitzen I et al. Gait Characteristics, Symptoms, and Function in Persons With Hip Osteoarthritis: A longitudinal Study With 6 to 7 YEARS OF Follow -up. JOSPT.2015;45:539-548

  • V Silverwood et al. Current evidence on risk factors for knee osteoarthritis in older adults : A systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2015; (23) : 507-515

  • MR Maly et al . Osteoarthritis year in review. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage . 2014 ;(12): 1958-1988

  • A Zacharis et al . Efficacy of rehabilitation for improving muscle strength in people with hip or knee osteoarthritis : a systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage .2014; (22) : 1752-1773

  • A Turkiewicz et al . Current and future impact of osteoarthritis on health care : A population – based study with projections to year 2032 . Osteoarthritis and Cartilage .2014; (22) : 1826-1832

  • BE Oiestet et al . Knee extensor muscle weakness is a risk factor for development of knee osteoarthritis . Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2015; (23) : 171-177

  • Abbott JH, Robertson MC, Chapple C, et al. Manual therapy, exercise therapy, or both, in addition to usual care, for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a randomized controlled trial. 1: clinical effectiveness. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013; 21: 525– 534

Special Tests

  • Kim, S.J. KH. Reliability Of The Anterior Drawer Test And The Lachman Test. Clinical Orthopedics.237-242.

  • Gerber, C. and Ganz, R. Clinical Assessment Of The Shoulder With Specific Reference To Anterior And Posterior Drawer Tests. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Br. 1984; 66:551-556.

  • McFarland, E.G.; McDowell, C.G. Posterior Shoulder Laxity In Asymptomatic Athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1996; 24:468-471.

  • Rowe CR, Zarins B. Recurrent Transient Subluxation Of The Shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1981; 63:863-872.

  • Holtby R. et. Al. Validity of the Supraspinatus Test as a Single Clinical Tests in Diagnosing Patients with Rotator Cuff Pathology. JOSPT. 2004; 34:4, 194-199.

  • Hovelius L, Eriksson K, Fredin H, et al. Recurrences After Initial Dislocation Of The Shoulder. Results Of A Prospective Study Of Treatment. J Bone Joint Surg. Am. 1983; 65:343-349.

  • Cook C. Orthopedic Manual Therapy. 1st ed. New Jersey; Prentice-Hall. 2007; pp 221-293.

  • Valadie AL III, Jobe CM, Pink MM, et al: Anatomy Of Provocative Tests For Impingement Syndrome Of The Shoulder. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2000; 9: 36-46.

  • Park HB, Yokota A, Gill HS, El Rassi G, McFarland EG. Diagnostic Accuracy Of Clinical Tests For The Different Degrees Of Subacromional Impingement. J Bones Joint Surg. 2005; 87-A (7): 1446-1455.

  • MacDonald PB, Clark P, Sutherland K. An Analysis Of The Diagnostic Accuracy Of The Hawkins And Neer Subacromional Impingement Tests. J Shld Elb Surg 2000; 9(4): 299-301.

  • Calis M , Akgun K, Birtane M, Karacan I, Calis H, Tuzun F. Diagnostic Values Of Clinical Diagnostic Tests In Subacromial Impingement Syndrome. Ann Rheum Disease 2000 ; 59(1): 44-47.

  • Hegedus EJ et al. Physical Tests of the Shoulder: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis of Individual Tests. Br. J. Sports Med. 2008; 42; 80-92.

Diagnostic Studies

  • Miniaci A. Mascia AT, Salonen DC & Becker EJ. Magnetic Resonance Imagining Of The Shoulder In Asymptomatic Professional Baseball Pitchers. American J. of Sports Medicine. 2002; 30(1): 66-73.

  • Hijioka, A; Suzuki, K; Nakumura, T. & Hojo, T. Degenerative Changes And Rotator Cuff Tears. An Anatomical Study In 160 Shoulders In 80 Cadavers. Archives of Orthopedic Trauma Surgery. 1993; 112:61-64.

  • Peterson, C.J. Degeneration Of The Gleno-Humeral Joint. An Anatomical Study. ACTA Orthopedic Scandinavian Journal. 1983; 54:277-283.

  • Dalldorf, Peter MD. Diagnostic Imaging of the Shoulder. Interview. 2004.

Rotator Cuff

  • Gazielly DF. A Model Of Rehabilitation For Repair Of Rotator Cuff. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Surgery of the Shoulder. Stockholm Sweden: Elsevier. 1995; 455-467.

  • Leffert R, Rowe C. Tendon Ruptures. Rowe CR, ed. The Shoulder. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone. 1988; 146-148.

  • Roddey et al. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing 2 Instructional Approaches to HEP following Arthroscopic full-thickness Rotator Cuff Repair Surgery. JOSPT. 2002; 32:11.548-557.


  • Shoulder Symposium: Lexington, Kentucky 2008/2009-class notes.

  • Haahr JP et al. Exercise Versus Arthroscopic Decompression in Patients with Subacromion Impingement: A Randomized Controlled Study in 90 Cases With One Year Follow-up. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005; 64:760-764.

  • McClure, P. Balaicuis, J. Heilind,D. Broersma, M. Thorndike, C. Wood, A. A Randomized Controlled Comparison Stretching Procedure For Posterior Tightness. J. Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007; 37: 108-114.

Cortisone Injection

  • Koester, MC, Dunn WR, Kuhn JE, Spindler KP. The Efficacy of Subacromial Corticosteroid Injection in the Treatment of Rotator Cuff Disease: A Systematic Review. J Am Acad Ortho Surg. 2007; 15(1):3-11.

  • Shah N, Lewis M. Shoulder Adhesive Capsulitis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials Using Multiple Corticosteroid Injections. Br J Gen Pract. 2007; 57(541):662-667.


  • Ludewig, PM, Cook, TM. Translations Of The Humerus In Persons With Shoulder Impingement Symptoms. J Orthop Physical Therapy. 2002; 32, 248-259.

  • Haahr JP et al. Exercise Versus Arthroscopic Decompression in Patients with Subacromion Impingement: A Randomized Controlled Study in 90 Cases With One Year Follow-up. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005; 64:760-764.

  • Laudner et al. Scapular Dysfunction In Throwers With Pathologic Internal Impingement. J Orthop Physical Therapy. 2006; 36 485-494.

  • Lo YP, Hsu YC, Chan Km. Epidemiology of Shoulder Impingement in Upper Arm Sports Events. Br. J. Sports Med. 1990; 24:173-177.

  • Tate A, McClure P, Young I, Salvatori R, Michener L.  Comprehensive Impairment Based Exercise and Manual therapy Intervention for Patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome: A Case Series.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2010;40(8):474-493.

  • Bang M, Deyle G.  Comparision of Supervised Exercise With and Without Manual Physical Therapy for Patients with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome. J Ortho Sports Phys Ther 2000;30(3):126-137

  • Muth S, Barbe M, Lauer R, McClure P.  The Effects of Thoracic Spine Manipulation in Subjects with Signs of Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(12):1005-1016.

  • Djordjevic DC, Vukicevic D, Katurac L, Jouc S.  Mobilization With Movement and Kinesiology Taping Compared With Supervised Exercise Program for Painful Shoulder: Results of Clinical Trial.  J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2012 Jul;35(6):454-463.

  • Thelen M, Stoneman P, Dauber J.  The Clinical Efficacy of Kinesio Tape for Shoulder Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Clinical Trial.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38(7):389-395.

  • Simsek HH, Balki S, Keklik SS, Ozturk H, Elden H.  Does Kinesio Taping in Addition to Exercise Therapy Improve the Outcome in Subacromial Impingement Syndrome?  A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial.  ACTA Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2013;47(2):104-110

Shoulder Girdle

  • Warner JP, Micheli LJ, Arslenian LE. Scapulothoracic Motion In Normal Shoulders And Shoulders With Glenohumeral Instability And Impingement Syndrome. Clinical Orthopaedics. 1992; 285:191-199.


  • Richardson C, Jull G Hodges P , et al: Traditional Views Of Function Of The Muscles Of The Local Stabilizing System Of The Spine, In : Therapeutic Exercise For Spinal Segmental Stabilization In Low Back Pain: Scientific Basis And Clinical Approach. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone 1999; pp 21-40.

  • Cresswell , AG Oddsson L, Thorstensson A: The Influences Of Sudden Perturbations On Trunk Muscle Activity And Intra-Abdominal Pressure While Standing. Exp Brain Res 1994; 98:336-341.

  • Jull, G. Janda, V.: Muscles And Motor Control In Low Back Pain. Twomey, LT., Taylor, JR., “Physical Therapy For Low Back: Clinics In Physical Therapy”, Churchill Livingstone, New York 1987.

  • Richardson, CA.: Toppenberg, R., Jull, G.: A Initial Evaluation Of Eight Abdominal Exercises For Their Ability To Provide Stabilization For The Lumbar Spine. Australian Journal Physiotherapy. 1990; 36:6.

  • Huxel Bliven KC, Anderson BE. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention. Sports Health. Nov-Dec 2013; 5(6):514-522. doi: 10.1177/1941738113481200.

  • Brumitt J, Matheson JW, Meira EP. Core Stabilization Exercise Prescription, Part I: Current Concepts in Assessment and Intervention. Sports Health. Nov-Dec 2013; 5(6):504-509. doi: 10.1177/1941738113502451.

  • Silfies SP, Ebaugh D, Pontillo M, Butowicz CM. Critical review of the impact of core stability on upper extremity athletic injury and performance. Braz J Phys Ther. Sept-Oct 2015; 19(5):360-368.

  • Radwan A, Francis J, Green A, et al. Is There a Relation Between Shoulder Dysfunction and Core Instability? Int J Sports Phys Ther. Feb 2014; 9(1):8-13.

  • Kulas, A.,: Low Extremity Connection to the Core, 56th Annual Meeting and Clinical Symposium. NATA.Indianapolis, IN. 2005; June 12-16.


  • Almekinders – NATA Clinical Symposium. 2005.

  • Curwin SL, Stanish, WD: Tendonitis: It’s Etiology And Treatment. Toronto, Callamore Press. 1984.

  • Alfredson H, Pietila T Jonsson P, et al. Eccentric Calf Muscle Training For The Treatment Of Chronic Tendinosis. Am J Sports Med 1998; 26(3):360-366.


  • Shrier I : Stretching Before Exercise Does Not Reduce The Risk Of Local Muscle Injury: A Critical Review Of Clinical And Basic Science Literature. Clin J Sports Med 1999; 9(4):221-227

  • Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, et al: The Impact Of Stretching On Sports Injury Risk: A Systematic Review Of The Literature. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2004; 36(3):371-78.

Sports Medicine

  • Whiteside JA, Andrews JR, & Flesig GS. Elbow Injuries In Young Baseball Players. Physician And Sports Medicine 1999; 27(6):87-92, 102, 105-107.

  • Barker S, & Barker A. Preventing Throwing Injuries To The Shoulder. Athletic Therapy Today 1997; 2(4):14-17, 28-29.

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